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7 Extremely Useful Linux Commands for Beginners
#1: ls : What’s in this directory?

The command ls stands for list directory contents. And, cleverly, it will do just that: list a directory’s contents! Using it with -F will give a list of the directories contents, and denote items that are other directories with a trailing /.

ls -F

On my server returns:

allthethings.txt important.doc Indominus/ Misc/ probs.xls Red Wings/ Spreadsheets/ Work/

In the above case, allthethings.txt, garbage.file, important.doc, and probs.xls are files, and Indominus, Misc, Red Wings, Spreadsheets, and Work, each with the trailing /, are directories!

There are many other options, or switches, such as -F that can be used with ls for improved results. For example:

ls -lFa

Returns:

dr-xr-x---. 10 root root 4096 Apr 17 12:01 .
drwxr-xr-x. 19 root root 4096 Apr 14 12:45 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 17 12:00 allthethings.txt
-rw------- 1 root root 483 Apr 14 12:45 .bash_history
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 18 Dec 28 2013 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 176 Dec 28 2013 .bash_profile
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 361 Jan 1 01:24 .bashrc
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jan 1 01:25 .cache/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jan 1 01:25 .config/
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 100 Dec 28 2013 .cshrc
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 17 12:01 garbage.file
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 17 11:58 important.doc
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 17 11:59 Indominus/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 17 11:57 Misc/
-rw------- 1 root root 42 Apr 14 12:44 .my.cnf
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 17 12:00 probs.xls
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 17 11:57 Red Wings/
-rw------- 1 root root 1024 Jan 1 01:22 .rnd
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 17 11:56 Spreadsheets/
drw------- 2 root root 4096 Apr 14 12:42 .ssh/
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 129 Dec 28 2013 .tcshrc
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 17 11:57 Work/

In the above case two switches are added: -l and -a. The -l uses the long listing format, and the -a switch lists all of the files, including hidden files.

Each column contains an important bit of information:

Column | Information | Example

  • 1 | Permissions | drwxr-xr-x
  • 2 | # of Hard Links | 2
  • 3 | User That Owns File or Directory | root
  • 4 | Group for File or Directory | root
  • 5 | File Size | 4096
  • 6 | Timestamp | Apr 17 11:59
  • 7 | Filename | Indominus/

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How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Fedora 21
Filed under: Technical Support

Memcached is a distributed, high-performance, in-memory caching system that is primarily used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It can however be used to store objects of any kind. Nearly every popular CMS has a plugin or module to take advantage of memcached, and many programming languages have a memcached library, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, and Python. Memcached runs in memory and is thus quite speedy, since it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing the Memcached PHP Extension on a single Fedora 21 node.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Self Managed Fedora 21 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.
  • Follow our tutorial on How to Install Memcached on Fedora 21 prior to this KB!
  • Apache and PHP must be installed.

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How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Fedora 20
Filed under: Technical Support

Memcached is a distributed, high-performance, in-memory caching system that is primarily used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It can however be used to store objects of any kind. Nearly every popular CMS has a plugin or module to take advantage of memcached, and many programming languages have a memcached library, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, and Python. Memcached runs in memory and is thus quite speedy, since it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing the Memcached PHP Extension on a single Fedora 20 node.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Self Managed Fedora 20 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.
  • Follow our tutorial on How to Install Memcached on Fedora 20 prior to this KB!
  • Apache and PHP must be installed.

(more…)




How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on CentOS 7
Filed under: Technical Support

Memcached is a distributed, high-performance, in-memory caching system that is primarily used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It can however be used to store objects of any kind. Nearly every popular CMS has a plugin or module to take advantage of memcached, and many programming languages have a memcached library, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, and Python. Memcached runs in memory and is thus quite speedy, since it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing the Memcached PHP Extension on a single CentOS 7 node.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Core Managed CentOS 7 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.
  • Follow our tutorial on How to Install Memcached on CentOS 7 prior to this KB!

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How to Check the MySQL Version
Filed under: Technical Support
Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended for checking the MySQL version on your server.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Core Managed CentOS 7 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.
Note: Are you looking to upgrade MySQL on a Liquid Web Core Managed or Fully Managed server? Then contact our Heroic Support® team! And if you’re looking for ways to improve the performance of your VPS, check out our blog on Optimizing Your VPS!

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How to Prevent Being Hacked by the Cross-site Scripting Vulnerability in WP Super Cache
Filed under: Technical Support

The popular WordPress plugin WP Super Cache has been found to have a cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability in versions prior to 1.4.4. On sites with outdated versions, it is possible for an attacker to take complete control of the WordPress site. Please note: this vulnerability only affects users which have installed WP Super Cache. However, if you are unsure if you use the plugin or not you should still take precautions to protect your site.

Thankfully, this is vulnerability is simple to address; version 1.4.4, available now, contains a patch.

This tutorial is very similar to our tutorial on updating any WordPress plugin: How To Update a WordPress Plugin
Step 1: Login to WordPress as Administrator

Hopefully, you’re already well-versed in logging into your WordPress site as an administrator!

Step 2: Access Updates

If there is an update for a plugin or a theme, then you’ll likely have a number in the top bar and next to Updates as shown below (the number 5). Click on Updates!

How To Update a WordPress Plugin - 01

Step 3: Update the Plugins

Check the boxes of the plugins you’d like to updated and click on Update Plugins:

How To Update a WordPress Plugin

And at the end of the update process you should receive something similar to, All updates have been completed.

How To Update a WordPress Plugin

Step 4: Verify the Update

If you want to be absolutely sure your version is updated, you can click on Plugins and then verify that WP Super Cache is at least version 1.4.4

How To Update a WordPress Plugin

For further reading, the following links can be consulted:




How to Update a WordPress Plugin
Filed under: Technical Support
Step 1: Login to WordPress as Administrator

Hopefully, you’re already well-versed in logging into your WordPress site as an administrator!

Step 2: Access Updates

If there is an update for a plugin or a theme, then you’ll likely have a number in the top bar and next to Updates as shown below (the number 5). Click on Updates!

How To Update a WordPress Plugin - 01

Step 3: Select All the Plugins

Check the box for Select All:

How To Update a WordPress Plugin - 02

Step 4: Update the Plugins

Click on Update Plugins:

How To Update a WordPress Plugin

And at the end of the update process you should receive something similar to, All updates have been completed.

How To Update a WordPress Plugin




What is a Virtual IP (VIP)?
What is a Virtual IP (VIP)?

When you create a virtual IP (VIP) address with Liquid Web you will receive both a Public VIP and Private VIP. The public VIP can be configured on a Storm server just as a non-virtual, or standard, IP would be configured. Connecting to a public service, such as HTTP or FTP, on the Public VIP occurs just as it would on a standard IP.

The Private VIP can be configured on a Storm server’s private interface just as a standard private IP would be configured. Connecting to a private service, such as MySQL or Puppet, on the Private VIP also occurs just as it would on a standard private IP.

So why use a VIP? When utilizing multiple servers, having a VIP is beneficial due to its ability to “float” between servers. This allows the VIP to remain highly reachable in circumstances in which a non-virtual (or standard) IP may be otherwise unreachable. It is possible to move both the Public VIP and Private VIP between Storm servers!

Both Public and Private VIPs can be configured on any server on your Storm account so long is that server is in the Zone where the VIPs were created. Typically software, such as the ones listed below, is used to manage on which server a VIP resides.

Use Cases for VIPs

Here are some of the things that you can do with Virtual IP addresses:

  • High Availability Databases (MySQL, Percona, MariaDB)
  • Non-DNS-based Service Migrations
  • High Availability Web Applications (in tandem with or in place of load balancer)
Examples of Software That Can Use VIPs

This is just some of the software that you can use with Virtual IP addresses:




How to Install Ansible on Fedora 21 via Yum
Filed under: Technical Support

Ansible is an automation engine, similar to Chef or Puppet, that can be used to ensure deployment and configuration consistency across many servers, and keep servers and applications up-to-date. Though, unlike some other tools, Ansible does not require a client component/agent.

Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing Ansible, an automation tool, on Fedora 21.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Self Managed Fedora 21 server, and I’ll be logged in as non-root user. If you need more information then visit our tutorial on How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Fedora 21.

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How to Install Ansible on Fedora 20 via Yum
Filed under: Technical Support

Ansible is an automation engine, similar to Chef or Puppet, that can be used to ensure deployment and configuration consistency across many servers, and keep servers and applications up-to-date. Though, unlike some other tools, Ansible does not require a client component/agent.

Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing Ansible, an automation tool, on Fedora 20.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Self Managed Fedora 20 server, and I’ll be logged in as non-root user. If you need more information then visit our tutorial on How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Fedora 20.

(more…)




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